Properties and importance of water, intra and intermolecular forces, non-covalent
interactions- electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, Vander Waals interactions, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Disulphide bridges. pH, pK, acid base reactions and buffers.
Carbohydrates: Different carbohydrates and with examples of glucose, galactose, sucrose, starch and glycogen. Carbohydrates metabolism: Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis, Pentose phosphate pathway, Glyoxylate cycle.
Proteins: Classification and properties of amino acids, Classification based on structure and functions, structural organization of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures), biosynthesis of protein. Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten equation, significance of Km , Vmax and Kcat. Lineweaver – Burk plot. Biosynthesis and degradation of aromatic and branched chain amino acids.
Nucleic acids: Structure and properties of nucleic acids. Different forms of DNA-A, B, Z. Circular DNA and DNA supercoiling. Different types of RNA- mRNA, and non coding RNA – tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, miRNA and siRNA. Synthesis and regulation of purine nucleotides by de novo pathway. Salvage of purine nucleotides. Synthesis and regulation of pyramidine nucleotides. Formation of deoxyribonucleotides and their regulation. Degradation of purines and pyrimidine nucleotides, disorders of nucleotide metabolism
Lipids: Classification, structure, properties and functions of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and eicosanoids- prostaglandlins. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - synthesis, β-oxidation and regulation. Ketone bodies. Synthesis of triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
Vitamins: Source, structure, biological role and deficiency disorders of vitamins .
Recommended Books: Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (5th ed.), Nelson, D., Cox, D., Pub: Macmillan Pub. Biochemistry (6th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: Freeman-Tappan. Text Book of Biochemistry by West, E. S., Todd, W. R., Bruggen, J. T V., Pub: Mac Milan. Principles of Biochemistry by White, A., Handler, P., Smith, E. L., Pub: McGraw Hill. Harper's Biochemistry, Murray, R. K., et al., 27 ed., Pub: Langeman Biochemistry (3rd ed.), Voet, D., Voet, J. G., Pub: John Wiley. Biochemistry, Mathews, et. al., Pub: Pearson