Course Catalog | Department of Life Sciences

Course Catalog

BIO321
IPR, Patent Laws & Bioethics
3.00
Undergraduate
IPR, Patent Laws & Bioethics
BIO406
Internal Project Dissertation
9.00
Undergraduate
Internal Project Dissertation
BIO403
Project Dissertation
12.00
Undergraduate
Project Dissertation
BIO407
Project Dissertation
12.00
Undergraduate
Course description not available.
BIO302
Plant Biotechnology
3.00
Undergraduate
Plant tissue culture media, phytohormones, in vitro cultures- initiation and maintenance of callus, suspension cultures and single cell clones- organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, cite differentiation and morphogenesis. Embryo culture, embryo rescue after wide hybridization, and its applications. Endosperm culture and production of triploids.  Introduction to the processes of embryogenesis and organogenesis and their practical applications.   Micropropagation, axillary bud, shoot-tip and meristem culture. Haploids and their applications. Somaclonal variations and applications. Introduction to protoplast isolation, Principles of protoplast isolation and applications. Testing of viability of isolated protoplasts. Various steps in the regeneration of protoplasts. Introduction of somatic hybridization. Various methods for fusing protoplasts, chemical and electrical. Cybrids- definition and application. Use of plant cell, protoplasts and tissue culture for genetic manipulation of plants ,Introduction to A. tumefaciens. Tumor formation on plants using A.tumefaciens (Monocots vs. Dicots). Practical application of genetic transformation.   Methods of gene transfer in plants- PEG, particle guns and Agrobacterium mediated (Ti and Ri plasmids) gene transformation. Identification of transgenic plants, Molecular markers and their applications. RFLP, AFLP, simple sequence repeats. RAPD for molecular mapping and crop improvement. Stress- biotic and abiotic stress. Development of transgenic plants- herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, insect resistance, and stress tolerance. Protein and oil quality traits in seeds. Genetic manipulation of photosynthetic traits for improvement of crop yield. Edible vaccines and plantibodies.   Plant secondary metabolites - types and applications, Biofertilizers- organization of nif genes and their regulation, Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azolla, cyanobacteria and their associations, Mycorrhizal biofertilizers and biopesticide production strategies.   Recommended Books: Plant Biotechnology, Slater, A., Scott, N. W., Fowler, M. R., Pub: Oxford University press. Biotechnology in Agriculture, Swaminathan, M. S., Pub: Mc. Millian India Ltd. Biotechnology and its applications to Agriculture, Copping, L. G., Rodgers, P., Pub: British Crop Projection. Plant Biotechnology, Kung, S., Arntzen, C. J., Pub: Butterworths. Agricultural biotechnology, Purohit, S. S., Pub: Agrobios. Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture, Dodds, J. H., Roberts, L. K., Pub: Cambridge University Press.
BIO102
Plant Sciences I
3.00
Undergraduate
Course Content Taxonomy: General principles of taxonomy, Hierarchy Systematics: Carolus Linnaeus Systematics. Outlines and relative studies on classification of angiosperms, Bentham & Hooker, Engler and Prantel and Hutchinson system. General characteristics of cyanobacteria, algae, fungi,  lichens, bryophytes and pteridophytes. Range of thallus structure, types of reproduction. Economic importance of thallophytes. General characteristics of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, classification distribution, morphological features, development and reproduction. Evolution of angiosperms and gymnosperms.   Recommended Books: Plant taxonomy and biosystematics, Stace, C. A., Pub: Cambridge University Press. Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach, Judd, W. S., Pub: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology, Verma, P.S., Pub: S. Chand Limited.
BIO103
Animal Sciences I
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction to Vertebrates and Invertebrates: General characters, classification of up to different phyla from protozoa to echinoderms with special reference to protozoa and arthropod. Type study of human pathogens: Plasmodium vivax, Trypanosoma gambiense, Entamoeba histolytica, Faciola hepatica, Tenia solium and Ascaris lumbricoides. Introduction to model systems: C.elegans, Drosophila and zebra fish.   Recommended Books: Modern Text book of Zoology: Invertebrates, Kotpal, R.L., Pub: Rastogi. Invertebrate Zoology, Anderson, D. T., Pub: Oxford University Press.
BIO303
Recombinant DNA Technology
3.00
Undergraduate
Isolation of DNA, cDNA synthesis, chemical synthesis of DNA by phosphoramidite method. Introduction of DNA into living cells, Introduction to gene cloning and its uses, tools and techniques: plasmids and other vectors, DNA, RNA, cDNA. Enzymes used in genetic engineering. Restriction endonucleases and restriction mapping, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase-I, reverse transcriptase, Sl nuclease, terminal nucleotide transferase, alkaline phosphatase, polynucleotide kinase, polynucleotide phosphorylase. Production of proteins from cloned genes: gene cloning in medicine (Pharmaceutical agents such as insulin, growth hormones, recombinant vaccines), gene therapy for genetic diseases. Cloning vectors- salient features, plasmid vectors, phage vectors, cosmids, phagemids (Lambda and M13 phages), viral vectors (SV40, Baculo and CMV), artificial chromosomes BAC, YAC and MAC.   Ligation of DNA to vectors – cohesive end, blunt end, - homopolymer tailing, linkers and adaptors. Gene transfer techniques- transformation, transfection, microinjection, electroporation, lipofection and biolistics. Reporter gene assay, selection and expression of r-DNA clones. Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR variations and their applications DNA sequencing - chemical, enzymatic and NGS methods. Salient features of human genome project. Applications of genetic engineering in agriculture, animal husbandry, medicine and industry.   Recommended Books: Recombinant DNA Technology, Watson, J. D., Pub: W. H. Freeman. Gene cloning and DNA analysis, Brown, T. A., Pub: Wiley Blackwell A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Principles of Gene manipulation: an introduction to Genetic Engineering, Primrose, Old R. W., Primrose, S.B., Pub: Blackwell Science Ltd.
BIO104
Ecology and Environmental Sciences
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction to Ecology, Community and Ecosystem (Inter-relationships between living world and environment, Biosphere, ecosystem and its components (abiotic and biotic). Environment related concepts and laws (theory of tolerance, laws  of limiting factors). Community characteristics- organization and concept of habitats and niche.  Bioenergetics. Biogeochemical cycles, Hydrologic cycle. Concept of habitat and niche. Population and Community Ecology Population attributes, density, natality, mortality, age ratio, sex ratio, dispersal and dispersion of population, exponential and logistic growth, life history strategies, population interactions, predation-types, predator-prey system, functional and numerical response, host-parasite interactions, social parasitism, symbiosis. Biogeography Phytogeography, Phytogeographic realms, major plant communities of the world, Vegetation of India, Zoogeography: Zoogeographic realms, Threatened species of animals. Principles of wildlife management, wildlife sanctuaries, parks and biosphere reserves in India, endangered and threatened species of plants and animals in India, germplasm banks. Environmental Issues, Policies and Regulation.  Impact of urbanization and industrialization, EIA-Environmental Impact Assessment (Global, National and Local), restoration of degraded ecosystems, bioremediation, environmental pollution, global climatic change.   Recommended Books: Basics of Environmental Science, Allaby, M., Pub: Taylor and Francis group. Elements of Ecology (1st ed.) Smith, T. M., Smith, R. L., Pub:  Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Environmental Science (11th ed.), Miller, G. T., Pub: Brooks/Cole.
BIO304
Industrial Biotechnology
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction to fermentation, the fermentation industry, Production process batch and Continuous system of cultivation, Solid-state fermentation. Selection of industrial microorganisms, media for fermentation, aeration, pH, temperature and other  requirements during fermentation, downstream processing and product recovery, food industry waste as fermentation substrate. Production of compounds like antibiotics, enzymes, organic acids, solvents, beverages, SCP. Production of fermented dairy products, Immobilized enzymes systems, production and applications. Industrial application of microbes - Wine, Beer, Cheese, Yogurt. Primary and secondary metabolites and their applications; preservation of food. Biogas; bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides. Use of microbes in mining: leaching of ores by microorganisms; microorganisms and pollution control-bioremediation;  biosensors. Biological waste treatment and in-plant sanitation - principle and use of biosensor- production of vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, enzymes and antibiotics, alcohols. Enzyme technology - production and recovery of enzymes, enzyme immobilization - application of enzyme in industries. Biosensors. Recommended Books: Industrial Microbiology, Casida, L. E., Pub: Wiley. Principles of fermentation Technology, Stanbury, P. F., Whitaker, A., Hall, S. J., Pub: Pergamon. Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology, Salle, A. J., Pub: Lightening Source Incorporated.
BIO105
Plant Sciences 2
3.00
Undergraduate
Structural organization of flower, initiation and differentiation of floral organs, structure and development of anther, microsporogenesis, structure and type of ovule, megasporogenesis, types of embryo sac. Plant water relationship, mineral nutrition, Solute transport, Role of growth regulators. Photosynthesis-light and dark phases of photosynthesis. Role of ATP and NADPH in carbon dioxide assimilation, factors influencing photosynthesis, photosynthesis of CAM plants. Role of plants in converting radiant energy into chemical energy. Respiration of chlorophyllous tissues in C3 and C4 plants. Regulation of photorespiration, photo periodism and flowering. Plant development: structure of plant body; fundamental differences between animal and plant development; embryogenesis – classical and modern views using Fucus and Arabidopsis as models; axis specification and pattern formation in angiosperm embryos; organization and homeostasis in the shoot and root meristems; patterning in vegetative and flower meristems; growth and tissue differentiation in plants; evolution of developmental mechanisms in plants.
BIO305
Genomics, Proteomics & System Biology
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction and scope of proteomics; Protein separation techniques: ion exchange, size-exclusion and affinity chromatography techniques; Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; Isoelectric focusing (IEF); Two dimensional PAGE for proteome analysis; Image analysis of 2D gels; Introduction to mass spectrometry; Strategies for protein identification; Protein sequencing; Protein modifications and proteomics; Applications of proteome analysis to drug; Protein-protein interaction (Two hybrid interaction screening); Protein engineering; Protein chips and functional proteomics; Clinical and biomedical application of proteomics; Proteome database; Proteomics industry. Methods of preparing genomic DNA; DNA sequence analysis methods: Sanger Dideoxy method and Fluorescence method; Gene variation and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); Expressed sequenced tags (ESTs); Gene disease association; Recombinant DNA technology: DNA cloning basics, Polymerase chain reaction, DNA fingerprinting, Human genome project and the genetic map. Introduction to systems Biology. Terms and definitions. Dynamical systems, linear stability and bifurcation analysis. Limit cycles, attractors. Genetic and biochemical networks, chemical kinetics, deterministic and stochastic descriptions. Other network types: Regulatory (e.g. fly), Signal transduction (e.g. MAP Kinase cascade in yeast), Metabolic (E coli), Neural network. Topology of genetic and metabolic networks. Software for systems biology. SBML, and open source programs eCell, Virtual Cell, StochSim,  BioNets. Quantitative models for E Coli: lac operon and lambda switch. The chemotactic module in E. Coli. Pathways and pathway inference. DAVID. Gene Ontologies. § Pathway Miner and similar Software.  SNPs and complex diseases.  Recommended Books: Genomics: The Science and Technology Behind the Human Genome Project, Cantor, C. R., Smith, C. L., Pub: John Wiley & Sons. Introduction to Genomics, Lesk, A. M., Pub: Oxford University Press. Handbook of Proteomic Method, P. M. Conn, Pub: Humana Press. Biochemistry, Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., Stryer, L., Pub: W. H. Freeman.
BIO106
Animal Sciences 2
3.00
Undergraduate
Chordate classification up to phyla, with special reference to pisces, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Comparative development of heart and respiratory organs in chordates. Composition of blood, coagulation of blood and fibrinolysis. Physiology of heart and neurohumoral regulation of cardiovascular function. Gastrointestinal system –digestion and absorption of foods in GIT. Physiology of kidney and its role in the regulation of electrolyte, water and acid base balance in the body. Structure and organization of muscle cells. Biochemical changes associated with muscle contraction and relaxation. Structure of nerve cell, origin of membrane potential, mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse in unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibres. Neurotransmitters. Reproductive physiology-male and female reproductive systems and sex hormones. Spermotogenesis, oogenesis, menstrul cycle. Placenta and its functions. Pregnancy and lactation. Animal development: Introduction, history and concepts of developmental biology; the current understanding on the mechanisms of development of organisms using vertebrate (mouse, chick, frog, fish) and invertebrate (fly, worm) models; how does a complex, multicellular organism arise from a single cell; the beginning of a new organism (fertilization), the creation of multicellularity (cellularization, cleavage), reorganization into germ layers (gastrulation), cell type determination; creation of specific organs (organogenesis); molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis and differentiation during development; stem cells and regeneration; evolution of developmental mechanisms. Drosophila Development, Development of Other Invertebrates, Plant Development, Model Organisms and the Human Connection, Signal Transduction, Germ Cells and Sex, Regeneration  and Growth, Post-Embryonic Development, Evolution and Development.   Recommended books: Text book of Medical Physiology (11th ed.), Ed: Guyton, A.G., Harcourt, J. E., Pub: Elsevier Saunders. Essentials of Medical Physiology, Shambulingam, K., Shambulingam, P., Pub: Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers. Harper’s Biochemistry, Murray, R. K., Harper, H. A., Pub: Appleton and Lange.
BIO307
IPR, Patent Laws and Bioethics
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction to various Intellectual Property Rights with a special focus on Patent laws, role of IP in research and development, International framework for the protection of IP (TRIPS, PCT, Paris Convention etc.), application of patent law in the domain of biotechnology, patentability: requirements and non-patentable subject matter, statute and rules for the administration of Patent law in India, legal requirements and administrative steps for getting a patent for a biotechnological invention, process flow of grant of a patent, use of databases of (patent and non-patent) for retrieving information to conduct research before filing a patent, understanding the published patent document, interpreting and constructed a patent claim, challenging and revoking a granted patent , Enforcing a patent: remedies available.   Bioethics: ethical concerns of biotechnology research and innovation, other IPRs including, industrial designs, plant breeder’s rights/plant variety protection, IC layout designs, Trade Marks, Geographical indications and  Trade Secrets etc. , managing IP assets, case studies and examples on successful grant of patents and study of important case laws involving biotechnological inventions/discoveries, Evaluation and case studies.   Bio-Ethics: General Bio-Ethical Considerations, Ethics in Stem cell research, Ethics in Genetic Engineering, Genetic Testing Bio-Regulatory Affairs: Definition, History and Need, New Drug Development Process, Drug Regulatory Agencies: US, Europe and India, Regulatory Filing Process for New Drug and Marketing , Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Clinical Practices (GCP) Recommended books: Beier, F.K., Crespi, R.S. and Straus, T. Biotechnology and Patent protection-Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi. Sasson A, Biotechnologies and Development, UNESCO Publications. Singh K, Intellectual Property rights on Biotechnology, BCIL, New Delhi Indian Patent Act, 1970 Manual of Patent Practice and Procedure, Indian patent Office Patents for Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology- Fundamentals of Global Law, Practice and Strategy by Philip W. Grubb, Oxford University Press Beier, F.K., Crespi, R.S. and Straus, T. Biotechnology and Patent protection-Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi. Sasson A, Biotechnologies and Development, UNESCO Publications. Singh K, Intellectual Property rights on Biotechnology, BCIL, New Delhi
BIO113
Essentials of Biology
3.00
Undergraduate
Unit I: Basic Cell, Molecular Biology and Genetics Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Introduction to Microbiology, Cell organelles, Biochemistry of macro molecules (Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids), Principles of Genetics (mendelian inheritance, concept of gene, Mutation, chromosomal abberations), Cell cycle, Cell division. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (Replication,Transcription,Translation and Gene expression), Introduction to Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics, Basics of cloning, Cancer, Biosensors, Bio artificial organs. Applications of engineering in biology. Instrumental techniques: Microscopy, Centrifugation, PCR, Gel Electrophoresis
BIO309
Cancer Biology
3.00
Undergraduate
Course description not available.
BIO201
Cell Biology and Genetics
3.00
Undergraduate
Cell as a basic unit of living systems, broad classification of cell types: bacteria, eukaryotic microbes, plant and animal cells; cell, tissue, organ and organisms, Cell organelles: Ultrastructure of cell membrane and function, Chromosomes: Structural organisation of chromosomes, nucleosome organization, euchromatin and heterochromatin. Cell division and cell cycle, Cell–cell interaction, apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, Cell differentiation.  History, scope and significance of Genetics. Mendelian laws of inheritance. Lethality and interaction of genes. Linkage and crossing over. Mapping of genes. Basic microbial genetics, Genetic mapping. Classical and modern concept of gene, Mutations, Chromosomal aberrations. Genetic disorders in humans. Sex determination in plants and animals. Non disjunction as a proof of chromosomal theory of inheritance. Sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited inheritance. Extra chromosomal inheritance; cytoplasmic inheritance, Mitochondrial and Chloroplast inheritance. Principles of Population genetics; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law, Gene and genotype frequencies. Recommended Books: An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts, B., Bray, D., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Roff, M., Robert, K.,  Walter, P., Roberts, K., Pub: Garland Publishing Company. Cell and Molecular Biology, Sheelar, P., Bianchi, D. E., Pub: John Wiley. Molecular Cell Biology, Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaura, P.,   Baltimore, D., Danell, J., pub; W.H. Preeman and Company. Principles of Genetics, Gardner, E. J., Pub; John Wiley & Sons Inc.
BIO310
Biology of Infectious Diseases
3.00
Undergraduate
Biology of infectious diseases. History of infectious diseases, basic concepts of disease dynamics, parasite diversity, evolution & ecology of infectious diseases Emergence of diseases: The basic reproductive number, critical community size, epidemic curve, zoonosis, spill over, human / wildlife interface, climate change, hot zones, pathology. Spread of diseases: transmission types (droplets, vectors, sex), super spreading, diffusion, social networks, nosomical transmission, manipulation of behavior. Control of diseases: drug resistance, vaccination, herd immunity, quarantines, antibiotics, antivirals, health communication, ethical challenges of disease control. The future of infectious diseases: Evolution of virulence, emergence of drug resistance, eradication of diseases, medicine & evolution, crop diseases & food security, digital epidemiology. Diseases in developing countries: Malaria, HIV, Cholera, Dengue, Tuberculosis. Recommended books: Understanding infectious disease, Ellner, P. L., Neu, H. C., Pub: Mosby Year Book. Expert Guide to Infectious Diseases, Tan, J. S.,  File, T. M., Salata, R. A.,  Tan, M. J., Pub: ACP Press. The Biologic and Clinical Basis of Infectious Diseases, Shulman, S. T., Pub: Saunders. A practical approach to infectious diseases. Reese, R. E., Betts, R. F., Pub: Little Brown and Company.
BIO202
Microbiology
3.00
Undergraduate
History, evolution and development of microbiology. Diversity of microorganisms- scope and importance. Characterization and identification of bacteria based on morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, chemotaxonomy and molecular systematics. Bergey’s manual – classification of bacteria, fungi, algae and archea.   The study of microbial structure by use of light, phase, fluorescent and electron microscopy. Preparation and staining of specimens. Microbial nutrition, nutritional types, requirements, design and types of nutrient media, microbial growth- principles, kinetics and methods. The influence of environmental factors on growth. Microbial control- definition, methods of sterilization, physical methods and chemical agents. Isolation of pure cultures- spread plate, streak plate and pour plate.   Classification of general features of cyanobacteria and importance of Spirulina, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Archaebacteria. Methanogenic and Halophilic bacteria. General account and economic importance of algae and fungi. Clinically important bacteria and protozoans. Distribution of microbes in nature.   History and development of viruses. Nature, origin and evolution of viruses. Nomenclature, recent classification (ICTV) structure and characteristics of viruses. Isolation, cultivation and identification of viruses. Biological and chemical properties of viruses. Animal, plant and bacterial viruses and their interactions with hosts. Virus replication and genome expression. Process of infection- animal, plant and bacterial cells. Molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis with respect to poliovirus, rotavirus, herpes virus, retroviruses.   Transmission of viruses (Direct and Indirect) persistence of viruses and their mechanism. Purification and inactivation of viruses- physical and chemical methods. Virus ecology and epidemiology, scope and concepts of epidemiology. Bacterial recombination, transformation, conjugation and transduction. Mapping of prokaryotic genome and tetrad analysis, insertion sequences, transposons and mechanism of transposition, retro transposons, plasmids.   Recommended Books: Microbiology: Concepts and Applications, Pelczar, M. J., Chan, E. C. S., Krieg, N. R., Pub: Mcgraw hill International Book Company. Brock Biology of Microorganisms (9th edition), Brock, T. D., Madigan, M. T., Pub: Prentice Hall International.  Introduction to Microbiology, Ross, Pub: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers. Prescot’s Microbiology, Willey, J., Sherwood, L., Woolverton, C., Pub: MacGraw Hill. Microbiology: An Introduction, Oortora, G. J., Funke, B. R., Case, C. L., Pub: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
BIO312
Cancer Biology
3.00
Undergraduate
Description: Basic understanding of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology is prerequisite for this course offered to students in the final year of their degree program. This is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the Chemistry, Biology and Pathology of cancer. Students opting for this course will be considered of having a specialization in modern cancer biology and therapeutics. The course is divided into two broad parts. The first part will focus on the genetic and molecular basis of cancer, while the second half will discuss the interface between cancer and medicine. The students will also be introduced to the concepts of anti-cancer drug resistance and the ever-growing need to implement personalized anti-cancer therapeutics in clinic. The use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics tools for identification of diagnostics, predictive and prognostic cancer biomarkers will be presented. Pharmaceutical approach of anti-cancer drug discovery and concepts of clinical trials will also be discussed. Biology: Definition and pathology of cancer. Cancer is a slow growing disease. War against cancer. Cancer is a multistep process: evolution of cancer. Eight hallmarks of cancer. Inflammation and genomic instability as causes of cancer. Carcinogens/mutagens. Tumor heterogeneity. Tumor suppressors, oncogenes/oncogene addiction theory. Cancer cell signaling: PI3K and MAPK signaling. Apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and their roles in cancer. Cancer stem cells Therapeutics: Chemo, targeted, immuno and stem-cell therapies. Anti-cancer drug resistance. Biomarkers: Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive. Personalized therapies: concept, experimental tools. 2 Cancer Genomics. Functional genomics. Synthetic lethality. Clinical trials.
BIO203
Plant Sciences II
3.00
Undergraduate
Structural organization of flower, initiation and differentiation of floral organs, structure and development of anther, microsporogenesis, structure and type of ovule, megasporogenesis, types of embryo sac. Plant water relationship, mineral nutrition, Solute transport, Role of growth regulators. Photosynthesis-light and dark phases of photosynthesis. Role of ATP and NADPH in carbon dioxide assimilation, factors influencing photosynthesis, photosynthesis of CAM plants. Role of plants in converting radiant energy into chemical energy. Respiration of chlorophyllous tissues in C3 and C4 plants. Regulation of photorespiration, photo periodism and flowering. Plant development: structure of plant body; fundamental differences between animal and plant development; embryogenesis – classical and modern views using Fucus and Arabidopsis as models; axis specification and pattern formation in angiosperm embryos; organization and homeostasis in the shoot and root meristems; patterning in vegetative and flower meristems; growth and tissue differentiation in plants; evolution of developmental mechanisms in plants. Recommended books: Introduction to Plant Physiology, Hopkins, W. G., Huner, N.P.A., pub: Wiley. Integrative Plant Anatomy, Dickinson, W. C., Pub: Academic press. Principles of Developmental Biology, Hake, S., Wilt, F., Pub: WW. Norton and company Inc.
BIO313
Cell Signalling and Neurosciences
3.00
Undergraduate
Molecular and cellular basis of brain development:  Brain structure and its origins and cognitive functions, including learning, memory and perception, Human embryonic brain development, Induction of neuronal differentiation and neuronal patterning, Structure of neurons, Axon guidance, Glial cell lineage development, Generation of neurodevelopmental stages in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Cell signaling:  Biochemistry of neurotransmitters and receptors, Signaling via second-messengers including cAMP, Ca++ and lipids. Synaptic vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in neurons, Membrane channels in signaling, Action potential and synaptic transmission in neuronal circuitry formation. Seminar Series/ Group discussion: To facilitate learning and concept building on neuronal signaling associated to neurological diseases, molecular and cellular basis of syndromic and idiopathic neurological disease. Tutorials/ Demonstration: Transcriptomics and metabolomics in brain, Cellular and molecular imaging in brain cells and Brain imaging technologies including, Electroencephalogram (EEG), functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Practicals:  Basic methods in neural cell culture, Generation of primary neurons and glial cells, Cytokines and small molecules in neuronal development, Basic methods in molecular neurobiology. Recommended books: Fundamental Neuroscience by Larry R. Squire Cell Signaling by John Hancock Dynamics of cyclic nucleotides signaling in Neurons by Pierre Vincent  
BIO204
Biochemistry
3.00
Undergraduate
Properties and importance of water, intra and intermolecular forces, non-covalent interactions- electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, Vander Waals interactions, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Disulphide bridges. pH, pK, acid base reactions and buffers. Carbohydrates: Different carbohydrates and with examples of glucose, galactose, sucrose, starch and glycogen. Carbohydrates metabolism: Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis, Pentose phosphate pathway, Glyoxylate cycle. Proteins: Classification and properties of amino acids, Classification based on structure and functions, structural organization of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures), biosynthesis of protein. Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten equation, significance of Km , Vmax and Kcat. Lineweaver – Burk plot. Biosynthesis and degradation of aromatic and branched chain amino acids. Nucleic acids: Structure and properties of nucleic acids. Different forms of DNA-A, B, Z. Circular DNA and DNA supercoiling. Different types of RNA- mRNA, and non coding RNA – tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, miRNA and siRNA. Synthesis and regulation of purine nucleotides by de novo pathway. Salvage of purine nucleotides. Synthesis and regulation of pyramidine nucleotides. Formation of deoxyribonucleotides and their regulation. Degradation of purines and pyrimidine nucleotides, disorders of nucleotide metabolism Lipids: Classification, structure, properties and functions of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and eicosanoids- prostaglandlins. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - synthesis, β-oxidation and regulation. Ketone bodies. Synthesis of triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Vitamins: Source, structure, biological role and deficiency disorders of vitamins . Recommended Books: Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (5th ed.), Nelson, D., Cox, D., Pub: Macmillan Pub. Biochemistry (6th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: Freeman-Tappan. Text Book of Biochemistry by West, E. S., Todd, W. R., Bruggen, J. T V., Pub: Mac Milan. Principles of Biochemistry by White, A., Handler, P., Smith, E. L., Pub: McGraw Hill. Harper's Biochemistry, Murray, R. K., et al., 27 ed., Pub: Langeman Biochemistry (3rd ed.), Voet, D., Voet, J. G., Pub: John Wiley. Biochemistry, Mathews, et. al., Pub: Pearson         
BIO314
Host Pathogen Interaction and Vascular Dysfunction
3.00
Undergraduate
Vascular Dysfunction: The primary structure, characteristics and function of Endothelial cells. Involvement of endothelial cells in inflammation and pathogenesis following pathogen attack and blood tumor barrier. Cell Signaling in primary cells.Practical: Adhesion assay, Cell death and cell cycle in primary brain cells, immunofluorescence assays, Surface Plasmon Resonance and ELISA techniques. Host Pathogen Interaction: Introduction to human diseases. Mechanism of pathogen adhesion and attack and entry into the human body. The mechanistic details and process of a few specific pathogens on primary brain cells. Practical: Cell Culture of human pathogens, co-culture and growth assays, Live cell imaging. References: Recent publications on Host pathogen Interaction and reviews will beprovided.
BIO205
Bioanalytical Techniques
3.00
Undergraduate
Instruments, basic principles and usage pH meter, absorption and emission spectroscopy, Principle and law of absorption, fluorimetry, colorimetry,  spectrophotometry (visible, UV, infra-red), polarography, centrifugation, atomic absorption, NMR, X-ray  crystallography. Chromatography techniques: Paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, HPLC, gas chromatography, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, NMR, CD, MS MS, ES MS, LC MS, AFM, Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescent microscopy, FACS analysis, Electrophoresis Agarose gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immune electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing., Radioisotope tracer techniques and autoradiography. Recommended Books:          Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Ed. Wilson KM,  Valker, JM  Pub: Cambridge University Press. Advanced Instrumentation, Data Interpretation, and Control of Biotechnological Processes, Impe., J. F. V., Vanrolleghem, P. A., Iserentant, D. M., Pub: Kluwer Academic. Crystal Structure Analysis A primer, Glusker, J. P., Trueblood, K. N., Pub: Oxford University Press. Modern Spectroscopy, Hollas, J. M., Pub: John Wiley and Son Ltd. NMR Spectroscopy: Basic Principles, Concepts and Applications in Chemistry, Gunther, H., Pub: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Principles of Physical Biochemistry, Holde, K. E. V., Johnson, W. C., Ho, P. S., Pub: Prentice Hall. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology, Hoppert M., Pub: Wiley VCH. Principles of Fermentation Technology, Stanbury P. F., Whitaker. A., Hall, S. J., Pub: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
BIO401
Research methodology
3.00
Undergraduate
Research methodology
BIO206
Fundamentals of Molecular Biology
3.00
Undergraduate
Nature of genetic material, organization of genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structure of chromatin, fine structure of the gene. Different kinds of genes- split genes, overlapping, assembled, polyprotein & nested genes. Gene amplification and polytene chromosome. C - Value paradox, mitochondrial & plastid genomes. DNA replication – Types of DNA polymerases. Mechanism of DNA replication. Enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication. Replication of telomeres and its significance. Differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication and regulation. DNA damage and repair. Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mechanism of transcription, Types of RNA polymerases and promoter-polymerase interactions. Transcriptional factors. Processing of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. RNA editing and transport. Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Genetic code, translational machinery, mechanism of initiation, elongation and termination. Regulation of translation, co and post translational modifications. Leader sequences & protein targeting. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes- the operon concept, negative & positive control and attenuation. Role of enhancers, cis-trans elements, DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling in gene expression. Environmental regulation of gene expression. RNAi and gene silencing. Recommended Books: Biochemistry (5th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: freeman-Toppan. Genes VIII, Lewin, B., Pub: Oxford. Cell and Molecular Biology (7th ed.), De Roberties, E,D.P., De Robertis, E. M. F.,  Pub: Saunders College publisher. Molecular Biology, Frefielder, D., Pub: Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Limited, Molecular Biology of the Gene, Watson, J. D., et. al., Pub: Benjamin. Molecular Biology, Weaver, R. F., Pub: McGraw-Hill.
BIO207
Immunology
3.00
Undergraduate
Concepts of immune response. Innate immunity – barriers and role of toll like receptors in innate immunity. Cells of the immune system , Adaptive immunity – organization and structure of lymphoid organs. Antigens –immunogenicity, antigenicity, factors influencing the immunogenicity, haptens, adjuvants and mitogens. Super antigens, B & T cell epitopes.   Types of B cells, BCR, developmental stages of B cells, regulation of immune response. Classification, fine structure and functions of antibodies. Antigenic determinants on immunoglobulins – isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes. The generation of antibody diversity. Effector cell mechanism of humoral response. T cell ontogeny – Types of T cells, T cell development. T-cell maturation and activation. Structure of TCR. T-cell differentiation, Effector cell mechanism. Cell death and T-cell populations, Types of cell mediated immunity.   Cytokines – classes and their biological activities. Therapeutic uses of cytokines and their receptors. Complement system– mode of activation, classical, alternate and mannose binding pathway, biological functions and regulation. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human leukocyte antigens (HLA), MHC restriction. MHC and disease susceptibility, regulation of MHC expression. APC’s and antigen processing and presentation.   Immunological techniques: Principle concepts of antigen–antibody interactions: Agglutination, precipitation, gel diffusion: Ouchterlony double immuno diffusion and Mancini’s radial immuno diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and complement fixation test. ELISA, RIA, Western Blot and FACS.   Recommended Books: Kuby Immunology (6th ed.), Kindt, T. J., Goldsby, R. A., Osborne, B. A., Pub: W. H. Freeman and Company. Roitt's Essential Immunology (12th ed.), Delves, P. J., Martin, S. J., Burton, D. R., Roitt, I. M., Pub: Wiley- Blackwell. Janeway's Immunobiology (8th ed.), Murphy, K., Pub: Garland Science. Fundamental Immunology (6th ed.), Paul, W. E., Pub: Lippincott Williams &Wilkins publishers.
BIO208
Bioinformatics
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction to Bioinformatics, Review on Biological Databases concept: Primary, secondary and composite databases, Nucleotide Sequence databases (EMBL, GenBank, DDBJ) Protein Databases –(UNIPROT, PIR, TREMBL), Protein family/domain databases (PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam,), Metabolic & Pathway databases (KEGG), Structural databases (PDB). Structural Bioinformatics: Classification of protein structures, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary structures, Quaternary structure, Protein folding concept, Potential energy map and Ramachandran plot. Secondary structure prediction methods, Classification of Three Dimensional Structures of Proteins, Motifs, Folds and Domains, Classification of Three Dimensional Structures in PDB (HSSP, SCOP, FSSP, CATH).  Structural Alignment Methods, Homology Modeling, fold recognition and ab initio methods. Computer aided drug design (CADD), Molecular Docking. Genomics: The Human Genome, Comparative Genomics (Comparative genomics of Model organisms), gene identification methods, primary gene expression analysis. Primary Sequence Analysis: Sequence alignment, Homology concept, pairwise sequence alignment, multiple sequence alignment, Phylogenetic Analysis, concept of SNP and snip analysis. Books: Bioinformatics–Sequence, Structure and Databanks, Higgins, D., Taylor, W., Pub: Oxford University Press, Incorporated. Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins, Baxevanis, A. D., Ouellette, B.F.F., Pub: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis, Mount, D.W., Pub: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Structural Bioinformatics, Ed: Bourne, P. E., Weissig, H., Pub: Wiley-Blackwell.
BIO209
Biophysics
3.00
Undergraduate
Introduction: Definition of biophysics, why to study, examples. Thermodynamics: Entropy, Enthalpy, The free energy of a system, Chemical potential, Redox potential, Bioenergetics Biophysical properties: Surface tension, Diffusion & Brownian motion, Osmosis, Dialysis, Colloids. Application of Radiation to Biological system: Introduction, particles and radiations of significance, physical and biological half-lives, macroscopic absorption of radiation, activity and measurements, units of dose, relative biological effectiveness and action of radiation at molecular level. Experimental methods in biophysics: (a) Microscope: Light characteristics, microscopes- compound, phase contrast, polarization, fluorescent and electron microscopes – Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Scanning tunneling electron microscope, Atomic Force Microscopy (b) Spectroscopy: Interaction of EM radiation with matter Ultraviolet & Visible spectroscopy-Beer Lamberts law- spectrophotometer. Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, Circular Dichroism, Fluorescence spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy. Recommended books: Intermolecular and surface forces by J.  Israelachvilli (Elsevier, 2011) Molecular & Cellular Biophysics by M. B. Jackson Biophysics, V. Pattabhi & N. Gautham (Narosa Publishing House) Biophysics by R. Glaser (Springer, 2004)
BIO301
Animal Biotechnology
3.00
Undergraduate
Basic techniques of cell, tissue and organ culture. Primary culture and subculture of cells. kinetics of cell growth. Properties of normal and transformed cells. Role of carbondioxide, serum and other supplements in cell culture. Different types of culture media- natural media, BSS, MEM, serum free media. Different methods for the estimation of cell viability and cytotoxicity. Applications of cell culture. Stem cells – Embryonic and adult stem cells. Isolation and culture of stem cells. Induced pluripotency of stem cells. Stem cell markers. Stem cell plasticity and differentiation. Application of stem cells in medicine. Apoptosis- mechanism and significance with reference to degenerative diseases – Parkinson’s disease, stroke and diabetes. Organ culture and tissue engineering: Organ cultures, histolytic cultures, three dimensional cultures, organotypic cultures. Production of bio-artificial skin, liver and pancreas. Tissue engineering- cell source and culture, culture of cells, design engineering of tissues, tissue modeling. Embryonic stem cell engineering. Production of monoclonal antibodies, Production of Transgenic Animals -Mouse, sheep, cattle and fish by microinjection, retroviral vector method and embryonic stem cell method. Animal cloning-Somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell nuclear transfer methods. Bio pharming and gene knockout. Recommended books: Culture of Animal cells; A manual of Basic techniques (6th ed.), Freshney, R. I., Pub: Wiley-Blackwell. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA, Glick, B. R., Pasternak, J. J., Pub: ASM Press. Elements of Biotechnology, Gupta, P. K., Pub: Rastogi & Co. Concepts of Biotechnology, Balasubrahmanian, et al., Pub: University press.         
BIO101
Fundamentals of Computers
3.00
Undergraduate
Course Summary IT has changed the Biologists thought process, revolutionary processing speed and advancement in data storage and mining methods has completely changed the Biotechnology  and new branches emerged like “-Omics” technologies. The class is hands-on, project-oriented to give better understanding of IT applications in Biology. The course is designed to introduce the most important and basic computer concepts. It also involves case studies and applications in which Bioinformatics tools and algorithms can be used. The course will introduce students to altogether a new world of Biology which includes many new terminologies and concepts in Bioinformatics. This course will enable student aware of programming methods in Perl and linux which they can use in Bioinformatics analysis. Detailed Contents Introduction to computers:Overview and functions of a computer system, Computer generations with characteristic features, computer organization, CPU, ALU, memory hierarchy, registers, I/O devices, storage devices. Types of Processing: Batch, Real-Time, Online, Offline. Introduction to operating systems:  Operating System concept, Variants of Unix, Linux operating system and command line applications. Computer Networking: Introduction to networking: Associated hardware devices, gadgets (Router, Switch etc.), Network Topologies and Protocols LAN, WAN and MAN, World Wide Web (WWW) Network security: fire walls. Concepts in text-based searching Medline, bibliographic databases. Algorithms, Flowcharts & Programming concepts:  Algorithms: Concepts & definitions, Converting algorithms to flowcharts, Comparing algorithms, flowcharts & programs, Algorithms solving Biological problems, Basic PERL Programming. Computers in Biology: Nature of Biological data, Biological Databases, pubmed, Overview of Bioinformatics, sequence alignment, Major Bioinformatics Resources: NCBI, EBI & ExPASY. References Introduction to Bioinformatics- Attwood Bioinformatics -David Mount Developing Bioinformatics Computer Skills- Cynthia Gibas Introduction to Bioinformatics- Arthur M Lesk Fundamentals of Computers, -V Rajaraman, PHI. Introduction to computers - Peter Norton Computer Fundamentals – P.K. Sinha  
BIO402
Internal Project Dissertation
9.00
Undergraduate
The students are advised to work under the supervision of any one of the faculty members in the department.
BIO705
Advanced Instrumentation
3.00
Graduate
Advanced Instrumentation
BIO608
Cancer Biology
3.00
Graduate
Cancer Biology
BIO700
Research Methodology
3.00
Graduate
Research Methodology
EVS510
Environment Science
4.00
Graduate
Environment Science
BIO601
Advanced Biostatistics
2.00
Graduate
Advanced Biostatistics
BIO616
Computational Biology
2.00
Graduate
Computational Biology
BIO525
Machine Learning
2.00
Graduate
Machine Learning
BIO526
Cell Signal. & Neuro
3.00
Graduate
BIO527
Bio-Ethics, Bio-Reg & IPR
3.00
Graduate
Bio-Ethics, Bio-Regulatory Affairs and IPR
BIO600
Genomics, Proteo.-Metabolomics
3.00
Graduate
Comparative Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics
BIO602
Sys. Biology & Molecular Netw.
3.00
Graduate
Systems Biology and Molecular Networks
BIO607
Host Path. Int. & Vasc. Dys.
3.00
Graduate
Vascular Dysfunction: The primary structure, characteristics and function of Endothelial cells. Involvement of endothelial cells in inflammation and pathogenesis following pathogen attack and blood tumor barrier. Cell Signaling in primary cells. Practical: Adhesion assay, Cell death and cell cycle in primary brain cells, immunofluorescence assays, Surface Plasmon Resonance and ELISA techniques. Host Pathogen Interaction: Introduction to human diseases. Mechanism of pathogen adhesion and attack and entry into the human body. The mechanistic details and process of a few specific pathogens on primary brain cells. Practical: Cell Culture of human pathogens, co-culture and growth assays, Live cell imaging.
BIO702
Analytical Methodology
3.00
Graduate
Analytical Methodology
BIO520
NGS: Concepts, Methods & App.
3.00
Graduate
Next Generation Genomics: Concepts, Methods and Applications
BIO703
Cancer And Its Therapies
3.00
Graduate
Cancer And Its Therapies
BIO521
Structural Biology
3.00
Graduate
Structural Biology
BIO704
Bioinformatics Essentials
3.00
Graduate
Bioinformatics Essentials
BIO524
Microbial Technology
3.00
Graduate
Microbial Technology
BIO535
Synthetic Biology
4.00
Graduate
Synthetic Biology
BIO701
Adv. Molecular & Cell Biology
4.00
Graduate
Advanced Molecular and Cell Biology
BIO610
Internal Project Dissertation
10.00
Graduate
Internal Project Dissertation
BIO699
Project Dissertation
16.00
Graduate
Project Dissertation