Plant tissue culture media, phytohormones, in vitro cultures- initiation and maintenance of callus, suspension cultures and single cell clones- organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, cite differentiation and morphogenesis. Embryo culture, embryo rescue after wide hybridization, and its applications. Endosperm culture and production of triploids. Introduction to the processes of embryogenesis and organogenesis and their practical applications.
Micropropagation, axillary bud, shoot-tip and meristem culture. Haploids and their applications. Somaclonal variations and applications. Introduction to protoplast isolation, Principles of protoplast isolation and applications. Testing of viability of isolated protoplasts. Various steps in the regeneration of protoplasts. Introduction of somatic hybridization. Various methods for fusing protoplasts, chemical and electrical. Cybrids- definition and application. Use of plant cell, protoplasts and tissue culture for genetic manipulation of plants ,Introduction to A. tumefaciens. Tumor formation on plants using A.tumefaciens (Monocots vs. Dicots). Practical application of genetic transformation.
Methods of gene transfer in plants- PEG, particle guns and Agrobacterium mediated (Ti and Ri plasmids) gene transformation. Identification of transgenic plants, Molecular markers and their applications. RFLP, AFLP, simple sequence repeats. RAPD for molecular mapping and crop improvement. Stress- biotic and abiotic stress. Development of transgenic plants- herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, insect resistance, and stress tolerance. Protein and oil quality traits in seeds. Genetic manipulation of photosynthetic traits for improvement of crop yield. Edible vaccines and plantibodies.
Plant secondary metabolites - types and applications, Biofertilizers- organization of nif genes and their regulation, Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azolla, cyanobacteria and their associations, Mycorrhizal biofertilizers and biopesticide production strategies.
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