| Department of Life Sciences

B.Sc. (Research) in Biotechnology

Degree Requirement

Requirement for completing B.Sc. Biotechnology (Research) course involve 111 major course credits, 24 CCC credits and 18 UWE Credits. Total credit requirement for B.Sc. Biotechnology (Research) course is 153 credits.

Total Credits


Core Credits


Major Electives


CCC + UWE credits

Core & Elective Courses

Core Courses

Requirement for completing B.Sc. Biotechnology (Research) course involve 111 major course credits, 24 CCC credits and 18 UWE Credits. Total credit requirement for B.Sc. Biotechnology (Research) course is 153 credits.

Course code
Fundamentals of Computers

Course Summary

IT has changed the Biologists thought process, revolutionary processing speed and advancement in data storage and mining methods has completely changed the Biotechnology  and new branches emerged like “-Omics” technologies. The class is hands-on, project-oriented to give better understanding of IT applications in Biology. The course is designed to introduce the most important and basic computer concepts. It also involves case studies and applications in which Bioinformatics tools and algorithms can be used. The course will introduce students to altogether a new world of Biology which includes many new terminologies and concepts in Bioinformatics. This course will enable student aware of programming methods in Perl and linux which they can use in Bioinformatics analysis.

Detailed Contents

Introduction to computers:Overview and functions of a computer system, Computer generations with characteristic features, computer organization, CPU, ALU, memory hierarchy, registers, I/O devices, storage devices. Types of Processing: Batch, Real-Time, Online, Offline. Introduction to operating systems:  Operating System concept, Variants of Unix, Linux operating system and command line applications. Computer Networking: Introduction to networking: Associated hardware devices, gadgets (Router, Switch etc.), Network Topologies and Protocols LAN, WAN and MAN, World Wide Web (WWW) Network security: fire walls. Concepts in text-based searching Medline, bibliographic databases.

Algorithms, Flowcharts & Programming concepts:  Algorithms: Concepts & definitions, Converting algorithms to flowcharts, Comparing algorithms, flowcharts & programs, Algorithms solving Biological problems, Basic PERL Programming. Computers in Biology: Nature of Biological data, Biological Databases, pubmed, Overview of Bioinformatics, sequence alignment, Major Bioinformatics Resources: NCBI, EBI & ExPASY.


  1. Introduction to Bioinformatics- Attwood
  2. Bioinformatics -David Mount
  3. Developing Bioinformatics Computer Skills- Cynthia Gibas
  4. Introduction to Bioinformatics- Arthur M Lesk
  5. Fundamentals of Computers, -V Rajaraman, PHI.
  6. Introduction to computers - Peter Norton
  7. Computer Fundamentals – P.K. Sinha


Plant Sciences I

Course Content

Taxonomy: General principles of taxonomy, Hierarchy Systematics: Carolus Linnaeus Systematics. Outlines and relative studies on classification of angiosperms, Bentham & Hooker, Engler and Prantel and Hutchinson system. General characteristics of cyanobacteria, algae, fungi,  lichens, bryophytes and pteridophytes. Range of thallus structure, types of reproduction. Economic importance of thallophytes. General characteristics of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, classification distribution, morphological features, development and reproduction. Evolution of angiosperms and gymnosperms.


Recommended Books:

  • Plant taxonomy and biosystematics, Stace, C. A., Pub: Cambridge University Press.
  • Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach, Judd, W. S., Pub: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated.
  • Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution and Ecology, Verma, P.S., Pub: S. Chand Limited.
Animal Sciences I

Introduction to Vertebrates and Invertebrates: General characters, classification of up to different phyla from protozoa to echinoderms with special reference to protozoa and arthropod. Type study of human pathogens: Plasmodium vivax, Trypanosoma gambiense, Entamoeba histolytica, Faciola hepatica, Tenia solium and Ascaris lumbricoides. Introduction to model systems: C.elegans, Drosophila and zebra fish.


Recommended Books:

  • Modern Text book of Zoology: Invertebrates, Kotpal, R.L., Pub: Rastogi.
  • Invertebrate Zoology, Anderson, D. T., Pub: Oxford University Press.
Ecology and Environmental Sciences

Introduction to Ecology, Community and Ecosystem (Inter-relationships between living world and environment, Biosphere, ecosystem and its components (abiotic and biotic). Environment related concepts and laws (theory of tolerance, laws  of limiting factors). Community characteristics- organization and concept of habitats and niche.  Bioenergetics. Biogeochemical cycles, Hydrologic cycle. Concept of habitat and niche.

Population and Community Ecology Population attributes, density, natality, mortality, age ratio, sex ratio, dispersal and dispersion of population, exponential and logistic growth, life history strategies, population interactions, predation-types, predator-prey system, functional and numerical response, host-parasite interactions, social parasitism, symbiosis. Biogeography Phytogeography, Phytogeographic realms, major plant communities of the world, Vegetation of India, Zoogeography: Zoogeographic realms, Threatened species of animals. Principles of wildlife management, wildlife sanctuaries, parks and biosphere reserves in India, endangered and threatened species of plants and animals in India, germplasm banks. Environmental Issues, Policies and Regulation.  Impact of urbanization and industrialization, EIA-Environmental Impact Assessment (Global, National and Local), restoration of degraded ecosystems, bioremediation, environmental pollution, global climatic change.


Recommended Books:

  • Basics of Environmental Science, Allaby, M., Pub: Taylor and Francis group.
  • Elements of Ecology (1st ed.) Smith, T. M., Smith, R. L., Pub:  Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
  • Environmental Science (11th ed.), Miller, G. T., Pub: Brooks/Cole.
Plant Sciences 2

Structural organization of flower, initiation and differentiation of floral organs, structure and development of anther, microsporogenesis, structure and type of ovule, megasporogenesis, types of embryo sac.

Plant water relationship, mineral nutrition, Solute transport, Role of growth regulators. Photosynthesis-light and dark phases of photosynthesis. Role of ATP and NADPH in carbon dioxide assimilation, factors influencing photosynthesis, photosynthesis of CAM plants. Role of plants in converting radiant energy into chemical energy. Respiration of chlorophyllous tissues in C3 and C4 plants. Regulation of photorespiration, photo periodism and flowering.

Plant development: structure of plant body; fundamental differences between animal and plant development; embryogenesis – classical and modern views using Fucus and Arabidopsis as models; axis specification and pattern formation in angiosperm embryos; organization and homeostasis in the shoot and root meristems; patterning in vegetative and flower meristems; growth and tissue differentiation in plants; evolution of developmental mechanisms in plants.

Animal Sciences 2

Chordate classification up to phyla, with special reference to pisces, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Comparative development of heart and respiratory organs in chordates. Composition of blood, coagulation of blood and fibrinolysis. Physiology of heart and neurohumoral regulation of cardiovascular function. Gastrointestinal system –digestion and absorption of foods in GIT. Physiology of kidney and its role in the regulation of electrolyte, water and acid base balance in the body. Structure and organization of muscle cells. Biochemical changes associated with muscle contraction and relaxation. Structure of nerve cell, origin of membrane potential, mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse in unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibres. Neurotransmitters. Reproductive physiology-male and female reproductive systems and sex hormones. Spermotogenesis, oogenesis, menstrul cycle. Placenta and its functions. Pregnancy and lactation.

Animal development: Introduction, history and concepts of developmental biology; the current understanding on the mechanisms of development of organisms using vertebrate (mouse, chick, frog, fish) and invertebrate (fly, worm) models; how does a complex, multicellular organism arise from a single cell; the beginning of a new organism (fertilization), the creation of multicellularity (cellularization, cleavage), reorganization into germ layers (gastrulation), cell type determination; creation of specific organs (organogenesis); molecular mechanisms underlying morphogenesis and differentiation during development; stem cells and regeneration; evolution of developmental mechanisms. Drosophila Development, Development of Other Invertebrates, Plant Development, Model Organisms and the Human Connection, Signal Transduction, Germ Cells and Sex, Regeneration  and Growth, Post-Embryonic Development, Evolution and Development.


Recommended books:

  • Text book of Medical Physiology (11th ed.), Ed: Guyton, A.G., Harcourt, J. E., Pub: Elsevier Saunders.
  • Essentials of Medical Physiology, Shambulingam, K., Shambulingam, P., Pub: Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers.
  • Harper’s Biochemistry, Murray, R. K., Harper, H. A., Pub: Appleton and Lange.
Cell Biology and Genetics

Cell as a basic unit of living systems, broad classification of cell types: bacteria, eukaryotic microbes, plant and animal cells; cell, tissue, organ and organisms, Cell organelles: Ultrastructure of cell membrane and function, Chromosomes: Structural organisation of chromosomes, nucleosome organization, euchromatin and heterochromatin. Cell division and cell cycle, Cell–cell interaction, apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, Cell differentiation.

 History, scope and significance of Genetics. Mendelian laws of inheritance. Lethality and interaction of genes. Linkage and crossing over. Mapping of genes. Basic microbial genetics, Genetic mapping. Classical and modern concept of gene, Mutations, Chromosomal aberrations. Genetic disorders in humans. Sex determination in plants and animals. Non disjunction as a proof of chromosomal theory of inheritance. Sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited inheritance. Extra chromosomal inheritance; cytoplasmic inheritance, Mitochondrial and Chloroplast inheritance. Principles of Population genetics; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law, Gene and genotype frequencies.

Recommended Books:

  • An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts, B., Bray, D., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Roff, M., Robert, K.,  Walter, P., Roberts, K., Pub: Garland Publishing Company.
  • Cell and Molecular Biology, Sheelar, P., Bianchi, D. E., Pub: John Wiley.
  • Molecular Cell Biology, Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaura, P.,   Baltimore, D., Danell, J., pub; W.H. Preeman and Company.
  • Principles of Genetics, Gardner, E. J., Pub; John Wiley & Sons Inc.

History, evolution and development of microbiology. Diversity of microorganisms- scope and importance. Characterization and identification of bacteria based on morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, chemotaxonomy and molecular systematics. Bergey’s manual – classification of bacteria, fungi, algae and archea.


The study of microbial structure by use of light, phase, fluorescent and electron microscopy. Preparation and staining of specimens. Microbial nutrition, nutritional types, requirements, design and types of nutrient media, microbial growth- principles, kinetics and methods. The influence of environmental factors on growth. Microbial control- definition, methods of sterilization, physical methods and chemical agents. Isolation of pure cultures- spread plate, streak plate and pour plate.


Classification of general features of cyanobacteria and importance of Spirulina, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Archaebacteria. Methanogenic and Halophilic bacteria. General account and economic importance of algae and fungi. Clinically important bacteria and protozoans. Distribution of microbes in nature.


History and development of viruses. Nature, origin and evolution of viruses. Nomenclature, recent classification (ICTV) structure and characteristics of viruses. Isolation, cultivation and identification of viruses. Biological and chemical properties of viruses. Animal, plant and bacterial viruses and their interactions with hosts. Virus replication and genome expression. Process of infection- animal, plant and bacterial cells. Molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis with respect to poliovirus, rotavirus, herpes virus, retroviruses.


Transmission of viruses (Direct and Indirect) persistence of viruses and their mechanism. Purification and inactivation of viruses- physical and chemical methods. Virus ecology and epidemiology, scope and concepts of epidemiology. Bacterial recombination, transformation, conjugation and transduction. Mapping of prokaryotic genome and tetrad analysis, insertion sequences, transposons and mechanism of transposition, retro transposons, plasmids.


Recommended Books:

  • Microbiology: Concepts and Applications, Pelczar, M. J., Chan, E. C. S., Krieg, N. R., Pub: Mcgraw hill International Book Company.
  • Brock Biology of Microorganisms (9th edition), Brock, T. D., Madigan, M. T., Pub: Prentice Hall International.
  •  Introduction to Microbiology, Ross, Pub: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers.
  • Prescot’s Microbiology, Willey, J., Sherwood, L., Woolverton, C., Pub: MacGraw Hill.
  • Microbiology: An Introduction, Oortora, G. J., Funke, B. R., Case, C. L., Pub: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Properties and importance of water, intra and intermolecular forces, non-covalent

interactions- electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, Vander Waals interactions, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Disulphide bridges. pH, pK, acid base reactions and buffers.

Carbohydrates: Different carbohydrates and with examples of glucose, galactose, sucrose, starch and glycogen. Carbohydrates metabolism: Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis, Pentose phosphate pathway, Glyoxylate cycle.

Proteins: Classification and properties of amino acids, Classification based on structure and functions, structural organization of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures), biosynthesis of protein. Enzymes and enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menten equation, significance of Km , Vmax and Kcat. Lineweaver – Burk plot. Biosynthesis and degradation of aromatic and branched chain amino acids.

Nucleic acids: Structure and properties of nucleic acids. Different forms of DNA-A, B, Z. Circular DNA and DNA supercoiling. Different types of RNA- mRNA, and non coding RNA – tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, miRNA and siRNA. Synthesis and regulation of purine nucleotides by de novo pathway. Salvage of purine nucleotides. Synthesis and regulation of pyramidine nucleotides. Formation of deoxyribonucleotides and their regulation. Degradation of purines and pyrimidine nucleotides, disorders of nucleotide metabolism

Lipids: Classification, structure, properties and functions of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and eicosanoids- prostaglandlins. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - synthesis, β-oxidation and regulation. Ketone bodies. Synthesis of triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol.

Vitamins: Source, structure, biological role and deficiency disorders of vitamins .

Recommended Books:

  • Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (5th ed.), Nelson, D., Cox, D., Pub: Macmillan Pub.
  • Biochemistry (6th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: Freeman-Tappan.
  • Text Book of Biochemistry by West, E. S., Todd, W. R., Bruggen, J. T V., Pub: Mac Milan.
  • Principles of Biochemistry by White, A., Handler, P., Smith, E. L., Pub: McGraw Hill.
  • Harper's Biochemistry, Murray, R. K., et al., 27 ed., Pub: Langeman
  • Biochemistry (3rd ed.), Voet, D., Voet, J. G., Pub: John Wiley.
  • Biochemistry, Mathews, et. al., Pub: Pearson         
Bioanalytical Techniques

Instruments, basic principles and usage pH meter, absorption and emission spectroscopy, Principle and law of absorption, fluorimetry, colorimetry,  spectrophotometry (visible, UV, infra-red), polarography, centrifugation, atomic absorption, NMR, X-ray  crystallography. Chromatography techniques: Paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, HPLC, gas chromatography, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, NMR, CD, MS MS, ES MS, LC MS, AFM, Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescent microscopy, FACS analysis, Electrophoresis Agarose gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immune electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing., Radioisotope tracer techniques and autoradiography.

Recommended Books:

         Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Ed. Wilson KM,  Valker, JM  Pub: Cambridge University Press.

  • Advanced Instrumentation, Data Interpretation, and Control of Biotechnological Processes, Impe., J. F. V., Vanrolleghem, P. A., Iserentant, D. M., Pub: Kluwer Academic.
  • Crystal Structure Analysis A primer, Glusker, J. P., Trueblood, K. N., Pub: Oxford University Press.
  • Modern Spectroscopy, Hollas, J. M., Pub: John Wiley and Son Ltd.
  • NMR Spectroscopy: Basic Principles, Concepts and Applications in Chemistry, Gunther, H., Pub: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
  • Principles of Physical Biochemistry, Holde, K. E. V., Johnson, W. C., Ho, P. S., Pub: Prentice Hall.
  • Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology, Hoppert M., Pub: Wiley VCH.
  • Principles of Fermentation Technology, Stanbury P. F., Whitaker. A., Hall, S. J., Pub: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
Fundamentals of Molecular Biology

Nature of genetic material, organization of genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structure of chromatin, fine structure of the gene. Different kinds of genes- split genes, overlapping, assembled, polyprotein & nested genes. Gene amplification and polytene chromosome. C - Value paradox, mitochondrial & plastid genomes.

DNA replication – Types of DNA polymerases. Mechanism of DNA replication. Enzymes and accessory proteins involved in DNA replication. Replication of telomeres and its significance. Differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication and regulation. DNA damage and repair.

Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mechanism of transcription, Types of RNA polymerases and promoter-polymerase interactions. Transcriptional factors. Processing of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. RNA editing and transport.

Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Genetic code, translational machinery, mechanism of initiation, elongation and termination. Regulation of translation, co and post translational modifications. Leader sequences & protein targeting.

Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes- the operon concept, negative & positive control and attenuation. Role of enhancers, cis-trans elements, DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling in gene expression. Environmental regulation of gene expression. RNAi and gene silencing.

Recommended Books:

  • Biochemistry (5th ed.), Stryer, L., Pub: freeman-Toppan.
  • Genes VIII, Lewin, B., Pub: Oxford.
  • Cell and Molecular Biology (7th ed.), De Roberties, E,D.P., De Robertis, E. M. F.,  Pub: Saunders College publisher.
  • Molecular Biology, Frefielder, D., Pub: Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Limited,
  • Molecular Biology of the Gene, Watson, J. D., et. al., Pub: Benjamin.
  • Molecular Biology, Weaver, R. F., Pub: McGraw-Hill.

Concepts of immune response. Innate immunity – barriers and role of toll like receptors in innate immunity. Cells of the immune system , Adaptive immunity – organization and structure of lymphoid organs. Antigens –immunogenicity, antigenicity, factors influencing the immunogenicity, haptens, adjuvants and mitogens. Super antigens, B & T cell epitopes.


Types of B cells, BCR, developmental stages of B cells, regulation of immune response. Classification, fine structure and functions of antibodies. Antigenic determinants on immunoglobulins – isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes. The generation of antibody diversity. Effector cell mechanism of humoral response. T cell ontogeny – Types of T cells, T cell development. T-cell maturation and activation. Structure of TCR. T-cell differentiation, Effector cell mechanism. Cell death and T-cell populations, Types of cell mediated immunity.


Cytokines – classes and their biological activities. Therapeutic uses of cytokines and their receptors. Complement system– mode of activation, classical, alternate and mannose binding pathway, biological functions and regulation. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human leukocyte antigens (HLA), MHC restriction. MHC and disease susceptibility, regulation of MHC expression. APC’s and antigen processing and presentation.


Immunological techniques: Principle concepts of antigen–antibody interactions:

Agglutination, precipitation, gel diffusion: Ouchterlony double immuno diffusion and Mancini’s radial immuno diffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and complement fixation test. ELISA, RIA, Western Blot and FACS.


Recommended Books:

  • Kuby Immunology (6th ed.), Kindt, T. J., Goldsby, R. A., Osborne, B. A., Pub: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Roitt's Essential Immunology (12th ed.), Delves, P. J., Martin, S. J., Burton, D. R., Roitt, I. M., Pub: Wiley- Blackwell.
  • Janeway's Immunobiology (8th ed.), Murphy, K., Pub: Garland Science.
  • Fundamental Immunology (6th ed.), Paul, W. E., Pub: Lippincott Williams &Wilkins publishers.

Introduction to Bioinformatics, Review on Biological Databases concept: Primary, secondary and composite databases, Nucleotide Sequence databases (EMBL, GenBank, DDBJ) Protein Databases –(UNIPROT, PIR, TREMBL), Protein family/domain databases (PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam,), Metabolic & Pathway databases (KEGG), Structural databases (PDB).

Structural Bioinformatics: Classification of protein structures, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary structures, Quaternary structure, Protein folding concept, Potential energy map and Ramachandran plot. Secondary structure prediction methods, Classification of Three Dimensional Structures of Proteins, Motifs, Folds and Domains, Classification of Three Dimensional Structures in PDB (HSSP, SCOP, FSSP, CATH).  Structural Alignment Methods, Homology Modeling, fold recognition and ab initio methods. Computer aided drug design (CADD), Molecular Docking.

Genomics: The Human Genome, Comparative Genomics (Comparative genomics of Model organisms), gene identification methods, primary gene expression analysis. Primary Sequence Analysis: Sequence alignment, Homology concept, pairwise sequence alignment, multiple sequence alignment, Phylogenetic Analysis, concept of SNP and snip analysis.


  • Bioinformatics–Sequence, Structure and Databanks, Higgins, D., Taylor, W., Pub: Oxford University Press, Incorporated.
  • Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins, Baxevanis, A. D., Ouellette, B.F.F., Pub: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
  • Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis, Mount, D.W., Pub: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
  • Structural Bioinformatics, Ed: Bourne, P. E., Weissig, H., Pub: Wiley-Blackwell.
Animal Biotechnology

Basic techniques of cell, tissue and organ culture. Primary culture and subculture of cells. kinetics of cell growth. Properties of normal and transformed cells. Role of carbondioxide, serum and other supplements in cell culture. Different types of culture media- natural media, BSS, MEM, serum free media. Different methods for the estimation of cell viability and cytotoxicity. Applications of cell culture. Stem cells – Embryonic and adult stem cells. Isolation and culture of stem cells. Induced pluripotency of stem cells. Stem cell markers. Stem cell plasticity and differentiation. Application of stem cells in medicine. Apoptosis- mechanism and significance with reference to degenerative diseases – Parkinson’s disease, stroke and diabetes.

Organ culture and tissue engineering: Organ cultures, histolytic cultures, three dimensional cultures, organotypic cultures. Production of bio-artificial skin, liver and pancreas. Tissue engineering- cell source and culture, culture of cells, design engineering of tissues, tissue modeling. Embryonic stem cell engineering.

Production of monoclonal antibodies, Production of Transgenic Animals -Mouse, sheep, cattle and fish by microinjection, retroviral vector method and embryonic stem cell method. Animal cloning-Somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell nuclear transfer methods. Bio pharming and gene knockout.

Recommended books:

  • Culture of Animal cells; A manual of Basic techniques (6th ed.), Freshney, R. I., Pub: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA, Glick, B. R., Pasternak, J. J., Pub: ASM Press.
  • Elements of Biotechnology, Gupta, P. K., Pub: Rastogi & Co.
  • Concepts of Biotechnology, Balasubrahmanian, et al., Pub: University press.         
Plant Biotechnology

Plant tissue culture media, phytohormones, in vitro cultures- initiation and maintenance of callus, suspension cultures and single cell clones- organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, cite differentiation and morphogenesis. Embryo culture, embryo rescue after wide hybridization, and its applications. Endosperm culture and production of triploids.  Introduction to the processes of embryogenesis and organogenesis and their practical applications.


Micropropagation, axillary bud, shoot-tip and meristem culture. Haploids and their applications. Somaclonal variations and applications. Introduction to protoplast isolation, Principles of protoplast isolation and applications. Testing of viability of isolated protoplasts. Various steps in the regeneration of protoplasts. Introduction of somatic hybridization. Various methods for fusing protoplasts, chemical and electrical. Cybrids- definition and application. Use of plant cell, protoplasts and tissue culture for genetic manipulation of plants ,Introduction to A. tumefaciens. Tumor formation on plants using A.tumefaciens (Monocots vs. Dicots). Practical application of genetic transformation.


Methods of gene transfer in plants- PEG, particle guns and Agrobacterium mediated (Ti and Ri plasmids) gene transformation. Identification of transgenic plants, Molecular markers and their applications. RFLP, AFLP, simple sequence repeats. RAPD for molecular mapping and crop improvement. Stress- biotic and abiotic stress. Development of transgenic plants- herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, insect resistance, and stress tolerance. Protein and oil quality traits in seeds. Genetic manipulation of photosynthetic traits for improvement of crop yield. Edible vaccines and plantibodies.


Plant secondary metabolites - types and applications, Biofertilizers- organization of nif genes and their regulation, Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azolla, cyanobacteria and their associations, Mycorrhizal biofertilizers and biopesticide production strategies.


Recommended Books:

  • Plant Biotechnology, Slater, A., Scott, N. W., Fowler, M. R., Pub: Oxford University press.
  • Biotechnology in Agriculture, Swaminathan, M. S., Pub: Mc. Millian India Ltd.
  • Biotechnology and its applications to Agriculture, Copping, L. G., Rodgers, P., Pub: British Crop Projection.
  • Plant Biotechnology, Kung, S., Arntzen, C. J., Pub: Butterworths.
  • Agricultural biotechnology, Purohit, S. S., Pub: Agrobios.
  • Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture, Dodds, J. H., Roberts, L. K., Pub: Cambridge University Press.
Recombinant DNA Technology

Isolation of DNA, cDNA synthesis, chemical synthesis of DNA by phosphoramidite method. Introduction of DNA into living cells, Introduction to gene cloning and its uses, tools and techniques: plasmids and other vectors, DNA, RNA, cDNA. Enzymes used in genetic engineering. Restriction endonucleases and restriction mapping, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase-I, reverse transcriptase, Sl nuclease, terminal nucleotide transferase, alkaline phosphatase, polynucleotide kinase, polynucleotide phosphorylase. Production of proteins from cloned genes: gene cloning in medicine (Pharmaceutical agents such as insulin, growth hormones, recombinant vaccines), gene therapy for genetic diseases.

Cloning vectors- salient features, plasmid vectors, phage vectors, cosmids, phagemids (Lambda and M13 phages), viral vectors (SV40, Baculo and CMV), artificial chromosomes BAC, YAC and MAC.


Ligation of DNA to vectors – cohesive end, blunt end, - homopolymer tailing, linkers and adaptors. Gene transfer techniques- transformation, transfection, microinjection, electroporation,

lipofection and biolistics. Reporter gene assay, selection and expression of r-DNA clones. Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR variations and their applications

DNA sequencing - chemical, enzymatic and NGS methods. Salient features of human genome project. Applications of genetic engineering in agriculture, animal husbandry, medicine and industry.


Recommended Books:

  • Recombinant DNA Technology, Watson, J. D., Pub: W. H. Freeman.
  • Gene cloning and DNA analysis, Brown, T. A., Pub: Wiley Blackwell A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Principles of Gene manipulation: an introduction to Genetic Engineering, Primrose, Old R. W., Primrose, S.B., Pub: Blackwell Science Ltd.
Industrial Biotechnology

Introduction to fermentation, the fermentation industry, Production process batch and Continuous system of cultivation, Solid-state fermentation. Selection of industrial microorganisms, media for fermentation, aeration, pH, temperature and other  requirements during fermentation, downstream processing and product recovery, food industry waste as fermentation substrate.

Production of compounds like antibiotics, enzymes, organic acids, solvents, beverages, SCP. Production of fermented dairy products, Immobilized enzymes systems, production and applications. Industrial application of microbes - Wine, Beer, Cheese, Yogurt.

Primary and secondary metabolites and their applications; preservation of food.

Biogas; bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides. Use of microbes in mining: leaching of ores by microorganisms; microorganisms and pollution control-bioremediation;  biosensors.

Biological waste treatment and in-plant sanitation - principle and use of biosensor- production of vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, enzymes and antibiotics, alcohols. Enzyme technology - production and recovery of enzymes, enzyme immobilization - application of enzyme in industries. Biosensors.

Recommended Books:

  • Industrial Microbiology, Casida, L. E., Pub: Wiley.
  • Principles of fermentation Technology, Stanbury, P. F., Whitaker, A., Hall, S. J., Pub: Pergamon.
  • Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology, Salle, A. J., Pub: Lightening Source Incorporated.
Genomics, Proteomics & System Biology

Introduction and scope of proteomics; Protein separation techniques: ion exchange, size-exclusion and affinity chromatography techniques; Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; Isoelectric focusing (IEF); Two dimensional PAGE for proteome analysis; Image analysis of 2D gels; Introduction to mass spectrometry; Strategies for protein identification; Protein sequencing; Protein modifications and proteomics; Applications of proteome analysis to drug; Protein-protein interaction (Two hybrid interaction screening); Protein engineering; Protein chips and functional proteomics; Clinical and biomedical application of proteomics; Proteome database; Proteomics industry.

Methods of preparing genomic DNA; DNA sequence analysis methods: Sanger Dideoxy method and Fluorescence method; Gene variation and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); Expressed sequenced tags (ESTs); Gene disease association; Recombinant DNA technology: DNA cloning basics, Polymerase chain reaction, DNA fingerprinting, Human genome project and the genetic map.

Introduction to systems Biology. Terms and definitions. Dynamical systems, linear stability and bifurcation analysis. Limit cycles, attractors. Genetic and biochemical networks, chemical kinetics, deterministic and stochastic descriptions. Other network types: Regulatory (e.g. fly), Signal transduction (e.g. MAP Kinase cascade in yeast), Metabolic (E coli), Neural network. Topology of genetic and metabolic networks.

Software for systems biology. SBML, and open source programs eCell, Virtual Cell, StochSim,  BioNets. Quantitative models for E Coli: lac operon and lambda switch. The chemotactic module in E. Coli. Pathways and pathway inference. DAVID. Gene Ontologies. § Pathway Miner and similar Software.  SNPs and complex diseases. 

Recommended Books:

  • Genomics: The Science and Technology Behind the Human Genome Project, Cantor, C. R., Smith, C. L., Pub: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Introduction to Genomics, Lesk, A. M., Pub: Oxford University Press.
  • Handbook of Proteomic Method, P. M. Conn, Pub: Humana Press.
  • Biochemistry, Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., Stryer, L., Pub: W. H. Freeman.
IPR, Patent Laws and Bioethics

Introduction to various Intellectual Property Rights with a special focus on Patent laws, role of IP in research and development, International framework for the protection of IP (TRIPS, PCT, Paris Convention etc.), application of patent law in the domain of biotechnology, patentability: requirements and non-patentable subject matter, statute and rules for the administration of Patent law in India, legal requirements and administrative steps for getting a patent for a biotechnological invention, process flow of grant of a patent, use of databases of (patent and non-patent) for retrieving information to conduct research before filing a patent, understanding the published patent document, interpreting and constructed a patent claim, challenging and revoking a granted patent , Enforcing a patent: remedies available.

Bioethics: ethical concerns of biotechnology research and innovation, other IPRs including, industrial designs, plant breeder’s rights/plant variety protection, IC layout designs, Trade Marks, Geographical indications and  Trade Secrets etc. , managing IP assets, case studies and examples on successful grant of patents and study of important case laws involving biotechnological inventions/discoveries, Evaluation and case studies.

Bio-Ethics: General Bio-Ethical Considerations, Ethics in Stem cell research, Ethics in Genetic Engineering, Genetic Testing
Bio-Regulatory Affairs: Definition, History and Need, New Drug Development Process, Drug Regulatory Agencies: US, Europe and India, Regulatory Filing Process for New Drug and Marketing , Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Clinical Practices (GCP)

Recommended books:

  • Beier, F.K., Crespi, R.S. and Straus, T. Biotechnology and Patent protection-Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
  • Sasson A, Biotechnologies and Development, UNESCO Publications.
  • Singh K, Intellectual Property rights on Biotechnology, BCIL, New Delhi
  • Indian Patent Act, 1970
  • Manual of Patent Practice and Procedure, Indian patent Office
  • Patents for Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology- Fundamentals of Global Law, Practice and Strategy by Philip W. Grubb, Oxford University Press
  • Beier, F.K., Crespi, R.S. and Straus, T. Biotechnology and Patent protection-Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi.
  • Sasson A, Biotechnologies and Development, UNESCO Publications.
  • Singh K, Intellectual Property rights on Biotechnology, BCIL, New Delhi
Biology of Infectious Diseases

Biology of infectious diseases. History of infectious diseases, basic concepts of disease dynamics, parasite diversity, evolution & ecology of infectious diseases Emergence of diseases: The basic reproductive number, critical community size, epidemic curve, zoonosis, spill over, human / wildlife interface, climate change, hot zones, pathology. Spread of diseases: transmission types (droplets, vectors, sex), super spreading, diffusion, social networks, nosomical transmission, manipulation of behavior. Control of diseases: drug resistance, vaccination, herd immunity, quarantines, antibiotics, antivirals, health communication, ethical challenges of disease control. The future of infectious diseases: Evolution of virulence, emergence of drug resistance, eradication of diseases, medicine & evolution, crop diseases & food security, digital epidemiology. Diseases in developing countries: Malaria, HIV, Cholera, Dengue, Tuberculosis.

Recommended books:

  • Understanding infectious disease, Ellner, P. L., Neu, H. C., Pub: Mosby Year Book.
  • Expert Guide to Infectious Diseases, Tan, J. S.,  File, T. M., Salata, R. A.,  Tan, M. J., Pub: ACP Press.
  • The Biologic and Clinical Basis of Infectious Diseases, Shulman, S. T., Pub: Saunders.
  • A practical approach to infectious diseases. Reese, R. E., Betts, R. F., Pub: Little Brown and Company.
Research methodology

Research methodology

Internal Project Dissertation

The students are advised to work under the supervision of any one of the faculty members in the department.

Project Dissertation

Project Dissertation

Chemical Principles

This course will focus on introductory chemical principles, including periodicity, chemical bonding, molecular structure, equilibrium and the relationship between structure and properties. Students will explore stoichiometric relationships in solution and gas systems which are the basis for quantifying the results of chemical reactions. Understanding chemical reactivity leads directly into discussion of equilibrium and thermodynamics, two of the most important ideas in chemistry. Equilibrium, especially acid/base applications, explores the extent of reactions while thermodynamics helps us understand if a reaction will happen. The aim of the laboratory will be to develop your experimental skills, especially your ability to perform meaningful experiments, analyze data, and interpret observations. This is a required course for Chemistry majors, but also satisfies UWE requirements for non-majors.


  1. Atomic structure, Periodic table, VSEPR, Molecular Orbital theory, and biochemistry:
    1. Introduction: why chemistry in engineering? Concept of atom, molecules, Rutherford’s atomic model, Bohr’s model of an atom, wave model, classical and quantum mechanics, wave particle duality of electrons, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Quantum-Mechanical Model of Atom, Double Slit Experiment for Electrons, The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen atoms, de Broglie wavelength, Periodic Table.
    2. Schrodinger equation (origin of quantization), Concept of Atomic Orbitals, representation of electrons move in three-dimensional space, wave function (Y), Radial and angular part of wave function, radial and angular nodes, Shape of orbitals, the principal (n), angular (l), and magnetic (m) quantum numbers, Pauli exclusion principle.
    3. Orbital Angular Momentum (l), Spin Angular Momentum (s), spin-orbit coupling, HUND’s Rule, The aufbau principle, Penetration, Shielding Effect, Effective Nuclear Charge, Slater’s rule.
    4. Periodic properties, Ionization Energies of Elements, Electron affinities of elements, Periodic Variation of Physical Properties such as metallic character of the elements, melting point of an atom, ionic and covalent nature of a molecule, reactivity of hydrides, oxides and halides of the elements.
    5. Lewis structures, Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), Valence-Bond theory (VB), Orbital Overlap, Hybridization, Molecular Orbital Theory (MO) of homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules, bonding and anti-bonding orbitals.
    6. Biochemistry: Importance of metals in biological systems, Fe in biological systems, Hemoglobin, Iron Storage protein - Ferritin]

2. Introduction to various analytical techniques:

UV-Visible Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, X-Ray crystallography

Spectroscopy: Regions of Electromagnetic Radiation, Infra-Red (IR) Spectroscopy or Vibrational Spectroscopy of Harmonic oscillators, degree of freedom, Stretching and Bending, Infrared Spectra of different functional groups such as OH, NH2, CO2H etc., UV-Vis Spectroscopy of organic molecules, Electronic Transitions, Beer-Lambert Law, Chromophores, principles of NMR spectroscopy, 1H and 13C-NMR, chemical shift, integration, multiplicity,

X-ray crystallography: X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s Law, Crystal systems and Bravais Lattices

  1. The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium, kinetics and intermolecular forces:
  • Heat & Work; State Functions
  • Laws of thermodynamics
  • Probability and Entropy
  • Thermodynamic and Kinetic Stability
  • Determination of rate, order and rate laws
  • Free Energy, Chemical Potential, Electronegativity
  • Phase Rule/Equilibrium
  • Activation Energy; Arrhenius equation
  • Catalysis: types; kinetics and mechanisms
  • Electrochemistry
  • Inter-molecular forces

 4. Introduction to organic chemistry, functional group and physical properties of organic compounds, substitution and elimination reaction, name reactions and stereochemistry

Texts & References:

  1. Chemical Principles - Richard E. Dickerson, Harry B. Gray, Jr. Gilbert P. Haight
  2. Valence - Charles A. Coulson [ELBS /Oxford Univ. Press]
  3. Valence Theory - J. N. Murrell, S. F. A. Kettle, J. M. Tedder [ELBS/Wiley]
  4. Physical Chemistry - P. W. Atkins [3rd Ed. ELBS]
  5. Physical Chemistry - Gilbert W. Castellan [Addison Wesley, 1983]
  6. Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach -Donald A. McQuarrie, J.D . Simon
  7. Inorganic Chemistry:  Duward Shriver and Peter Atkins.
  8. Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity by James E. Huheey,
  9. Ellen A. Keiter and Richard L. Keiter.
  10. Inorganic Chemistry: Catherine Housecroft, Alan G. Sharpe.
  11. Atkins' Physical Chemistry, Peter W. Atkins, Julio de Paula.
  12. Strategic Applications of Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis, Author: Kurti Laszlo et.al
  13. Classics in Stereoselective Synthesis, Author: Carreira Erick M & Kvaerno Lisbet
  14. Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions Student Edition, Author: Fleming Ian
  15. Logic of Chemical Synthesis, Author: Corey E. J. & Xue-Min Cheng
  16. Art of Writing Reasonable Organic Reaction Mechanisms /2nd Edn., Author: Grossman Robert B.
  17. Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach/ 2nd Edn., Author: Warrer Stuart & Wyatt Paul

Other reading materials will be assigned as and when required.

Prerequisite: None.

Basic Organic Chemistry I
  1. Intermolecular forces of attraction: van der Waals forces, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding
  2. Homolytic and heterolytic bond fission.
  3. Hybridization- Bonding
  4. Electron displacements: Inductive, electromeric, resonance, hyperconjugation effect
  5. Reaction intermediate- their shape and stability
    • a. carbocations,
    • b. carbanions,
    • c. free radicals,
    • d. carbenes,
    • e. benzynes
  6. Acidity and basicity of organic molecules: Alkanes/Alkenes, Alcohols/Phenols/Carboxylic acids, Amines pKa, pKb.
  7. Electrophiles and nucleophiles. Nucleophilicity and Basicity
  8. Aromaticity and Tautomerism
  9. Molecular chirality and Isomerism
    • a. Cycloalkanes (C3 to C8): Relative stability, Baeyer strain theory and Sachse Mohr theory.
    • b. Conformations and Conformational analysis: Ethane, n-butane, ethane derivatives, cyclohexane, monosubstituted and disubstituted cyclohexanes and their relative stabilities.
  10. Stereochemistry (Structural- and Stereo-isomerism)
    • Molecular representations: Newman, Sawhorse, Wedge & Dash, Fischer projections and their inter conversions.
  11. Geometrical isomerism in unsaturated and cyclic systems: cis–trans and, syn-anti isomerism, E/Z notations. Geometrical isomerism in dienes- Isolated and conjugated systems, determination of configurations.
  12. Chirality and optical isomerism: Configurational isomers. Molecules with one or two chiral centres- constitutionally symmetrical and unsymmetrical molecules; Enantiomers and diastereomers. Optical activity, disymmetry, meso compounds, racemic modifications and methods of their resolution; stereochemical nomenclature: erythro/threo, D/L and R/S nomenclature in acyclic systems. Measurement of optical activity: specific rotation.


    1. Morrison, Robert Thornton & Boyd, Robert Neilson Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), Seventh Edition, 2005.
    2. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 1), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education), Sixth Edition, 2003.
    3. Finar, I. L. Organic Chemistry (Volume 2: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural Products), Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education). Fifth Edition, 1975.
    4. Graham Solomons, T.W., Craig B. Fryhle Organic Chemistry, Ninth edition
    5. Eliel, E. L. & Wilen, S. H. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds; First Edition, Wiley: London, 1994.
    6. Clayden, Greeves Warren and Wothers, Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
    7. Oxford Chemistry Primers, Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Oxford University Press.

    Prerequisite: Chemical Principles (CHY111).

    Elementary Calculus

    Core course for B.Sc. (Research) Biotechnology. Only available as UWE with prior permission of Department of Mathematics. Does not count towards a Minor in Mathematics.

    Credits (Lec:Tut:Lab): (3:1:0)

    Overview: This course is targeted at undergraduates who did not take Mathematics at +2 level in school, and now need to quickly acquire basic calculus skills in order to satisfy their major requirements. For example, the purpose may be to enable them to take a Probability course which requires basic concepts from calculus. The course will emphasize geometric meaning rather than formal proof.

    Students who need greater rigour, as well as more computational skills, should take MAT101 Calculus I.

    Detailed Syllabus:

    1. Functions: Real line and its subsets, real functions, graphs, polynomials, rational functions, real powers, trigonometric functions, roots, boundedness, monotonicity, composition of functions, inverse functions.
    2. Limits and Continuity: Algebra of limits, left and right limits, limits involving infinity, continuity, left and right continuity, types of discontinuity.
    3. Differentiation: Rates of change, tangents to graphs, first and higher derivatives, algebra of differentiation, chain rule, exponentials and logarithms.
    4. Applications of differentiation: Exponential growth and decay, intervals of increase and decrease, first and second derivative tests, curve sketching.
    5. Integration: Definite and indefinite integrals, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, substitution, integration by parts, trigonometric integrals, improper integrals.
    6. First-Order Differential Equations: Separable differential equations, logistic growth.


    1. Short Calculus, by Serge Lang, Springer.
    2. Essential Calculus – Early Transcendentals, by James Stewart. Cengage, India Edition.

    Past Instructors: L M Saha

    Basic Probability and Statistics

    Core course for B.Sc. (Research) Biotechnology. Only available as UWE with prior permission of Department of Mathematics. Does not count towards Minor in Mathematics.

    Credits (Lec:Tut:Lab)= 3:1:0 (3 lectures +1 tutorial weekly)

    Prerequisites: Class XII Mathematics or MAT 020 (Elementary Calculus) or MAT 101 (Calculus I)

    Overview: Probability is the means by which we model the inherent randomness of natural phenomena. This course provides an introduction to a range of techniques for understanding randomness and variability, and for understanding relationships between quantities. The concluding portions on Statistics take up the problem of testing our theoretical models against actual data, as well as applying the models to data in order to make decisions. This course will act as an introduction to probability and statistics for students from natural sciences, social sciences and humanities.

    Detailed Syllabus:

    1. Describing data: scales of measurement, frequency tables and graphs, grouped data, stem and leaf plots, histograms, frequency polygons and ogives, percentiles and box plots, graphs for two characteristics
    2. Summarizing data: Measures of the middle: mean, median, mode; Measures of spread: variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, percentiles, interquartile range; Chebyshev’s inequality, normal data sets, Measures for relationship between two characteristics; Relative risk and Odds ratio
    3. Elements of Probability: Sample space and events, basic definitions and rules of probability, conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem, independent events
    4. Sampling: Population and samples, reasons for sampling, methods of sampling, standard error, Population parameter and sample statistic
    5. Special random variables and their distributions: Bernoulli, Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Normal, Exponential, Gamma, distributions arising from the Normal: Chi-­‐square, t, F
    6. Distributions of Sampling statistics: Sampling distribution of the mean, The central limit theorem, Determination of sample size, standard deviation versus standard error, the sample variance, sampling distributions from a normal population, sampling from a finite population
    7. Estimation: Maximum likelihood estimator; Interval estimates; Estimating the confidence interval for population mean, variance and proportions; Confidence intervals for the difference between independent means
    8. Hypothesis testing: Null and alternate hypothesis; Significance levels; Type  I  and  Type  II  errors;  Tests  based  on  Normal,  t,  F  and  Chi-­‐Square distributions for testing of mean, variance and proportions, Tests for independence  of  attributes,  Goodness  of  fit;  Non-­‐parametric  tests:  the sign test, the Signed Rank test, Wilcoxon Rank-­‐Sum Test.
    9. Analysis of variance: Comparing three or more means: One-­‐way analysis of variance, Two-­‐factor analysis of variance, Two-­‐way analysis of variance with interaction
    10. Correlation and Regression: Correlation, calculating correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, Spearman’s rank correlation; Linear regression, Least square estimation of regression parameters, distribution of the estimators, assumptions and inferences in regression; analysis of residuals: assessing the model; transforming to linearity; weighted least squares; polynomial regression

    Main References:

    • Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists by Sheldon Ross, 2nd edition, Harcourt Academic Press.

    Other References:

    • Basic and Clinical Biostatistics by Beth Dawson-­‐Saunders and Robert G. Trapp, 2nd edition, Appleton and Lange.
    • John E. Freund’s Mathematical Statistics with Applications by I. Miller & M. Miller, 7th edition, Pearson, 2011.

    Past Instructors: Sneh Lata, Suma Ghosh

    Physics For Life

    It will provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, Fluids, Thermodynamics, Electricity & Magnetism and Wave Optics. 

    1. Introduction: Relation of Physics with other sciences, Estimation and Units, Dimensional analysis, Vector and scalar. 
    2. Mechanics: Newton’s laws of motion in one dimension, work & energy in one dimension, Motion in two dimensions, Momentum, Rotational motion. 
    3. Fluids: Ideal fluid, Viscous fluid, Surface tension 
    4. Thermodynamics: Temperature, laws of thermodynamics, entropy 
    5. Electricity & Magnetism: Electric force & field, Energy & potential, Magnetic force & field, Electromagnetic induction 
    6. Wave optics: Interference, diffraction, Diffraction gratings, Polarization

    Introduction to Biophysics

    1. Introduction: Definition of biophysics, why to study, examples.   
    2. Thermodynamics: Entropy, Enthalpy, The free energy of a system, Chemical potential, Redox potential, Bioenergetics  
    3. Biophysical properties: Brownian motion, Osmosis, Dialysis, Colloids 
    4. Membrane biophysics: Structure of bio-membrane. Structure-function relation. 
    5. Application of Radiation to Biological system: Introduction, particles and radiations of significance, physical and biological half-lives, macroscopic absorption of radiation, activity and measurements, units of dose, relative biological effectiveness and action of radiation at molecular level. 
    6. Experimental methods in biophysics:  (a) Microscope: Light characteristics, microscopes- compound, phase contrast, polarization, fluorescent and electron microscopes – Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Scanning tunneling electron microscope, Atomic Force Microscopy 
    (b) Spectroscopy: Electronic structure of atoms, Bond formation, hybridization of orbitals, Molecular orbitals, Bond energy, Ultraviolet & Visible spectroscopy-Beer Lamberts law- spectrophotometer. Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, Circular Dichroism, Fluorescence spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy.

    Elective Courses

    B.Sc. Biotechnology program have options to choose any 1 elective course out of 4 courses in VI semester. The course are: Elective 1 BIO 308: Drug designing and Drug Development Elective 2 BIO 309: Cancer Biology Elective 3 BIO 313: Cell signaling and Neurosciences Elective 4 BIO 314: Host pathogen interaction & vascular dysfunction any one of the elective from the above 4 can be selected.

    Course code
    Cancer Biology

    Course description not available.

    Cell Signalling and Neurosciences

    Molecular and cellular basis of brain development: 
    Brain structure and its origins and cognitive functions, including learning, memory and perception, Human embryonic brain development, Induction of neuronal differentiation and neuronal patterning, Structure of neurons, Axon guidance, Glial cell lineage development, Generation of neurodevelopmental stages in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
    Cell signaling: 
    Biochemistry of neurotransmitters and receptors, Signaling via second-messengers including cAMP, Ca++ and lipids. Synaptic vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in neurons, Membrane channels in signaling, Action potential and synaptic transmission in neuronal circuitry formation.
    Seminar Series/ Group discussion: To facilitate learning and concept building on neuronal signaling associated to neurological diseases, molecular and cellular basis of syndromic and idiopathic neurological disease.
    Tutorials/ Demonstration:
    Transcriptomics and metabolomics in brain, Cellular and molecular imaging in brain cells and Brain imaging technologies including, Electroencephalogram (EEG), functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (MRS).

    Basic methods in neural cell culture, Generation of primary neurons and glial cells, Cytokines and small molecules in neuronal development, Basic methods in molecular neurobiology.

    Recommended books:
    Fundamental Neuroscience by Larry R. Squire
    Cell Signaling by John Hancock
    Dynamics of cyclic nucleotides signaling in Neurons by Pierre Vincent


    Host Pathogen Interaction and Vascular Dysfunction

    Vascular Dysfunction: The primary structure, characteristics and function of Endothelial cells. Involvement of endothelial cells in inflammation and pathogenesis following pathogen attack and blood tumor barrier. Cell Signaling in primary cells.Practical: Adhesion assay, Cell death and cell cycle in primary brain cells, immunofluorescence assays, Surface Plasmon Resonance and ELISA techniques.

    Host Pathogen Interaction: Introduction to human diseases. Mechanism of pathogen adhesion and attack and entry into the human body. The mechanistic details and process of a few specific pathogens on primary brain cells.

    Practical: Cell Culture of human pathogens, co-culture and growth assays, Live cell imaging.

    References: Recent publications on Host pathogen Interaction and reviews will beprovided.